If a non-Iranian vessel is transporting sanctionable goods to or from Iran (including, but not limited to, petroleum, petroleum products, or petrochemical products from Iran; goods used in connection with the automotive sector of Iran; or iron, iron products, aluminum, aluminum products, steel, steel products, copper, or copper products from Iran), bunkering of that non-Iranian vessel in a country other than Iran — and related payments for these bunkering services — risk being subject to sanctions unless an applicable waiver or exception applies. For example, persons providing bunkering services to a non-Iranian vessel transporting petroleum or petroleum products from Iran could be designated under subsection 1(a)(ii) of E.O. 13846 if such activities involve the provision of material support for, or goods or services to or in support of, NIOC or NICO. Persons that knowingly provide bunkering services to a non-Iranian vessel carrying only petroleum or petroleum products from Iran could likewise be sanctioned under section 3(a)(ii) of E.O. 13846 if that transaction is determined to be a significant transaction for the purchase, acquisition, sale, transport, or marketing of those items.